Technical Evaluation and Analysis on Global Public Blockchains Bluebook

(2020-04)

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Summary of report content

The public chain is the most interesting in the current blockchain field and the most widely used project type at this stage. However, there are certain technical and security risks in the public chain. Both developers, investors, and enterprises must maintain a calm and cautious attitude towards the public chain. In the past, the evaluation of the technical content and research and development of public chain projects mostly came from the interpretation of the content of its white paper and the current project product status. The content of objective data analysis was seriously insufficient, resulting in the lack of serious data support for the analysis results. It is particularly important to strip out the pure blockchain technology value under the "noisy background" of the coin. Beijing Tiande Technology Co., Ltd. combined with Chain Tower Think Tank Company and relevant authorities, using its self-developed Taishan sandbox-blockchain technology evaluation database system, combined with a lot of historical public chain rating experience, completed this public chain project. Technical assessment and analysis report.

This issue collects and sorts out the relevant information of the public chain corresponding to the digital tokens with higher market value (top 200). The data collection date is as of October 15, 2018. The white paper, open source community, source code, technical team, project products and other dimensions are calculated and evaluated for specific indicators, and the overall situation of the public chain project is as follows:

There are 157 digital tokens in open source community projects with open main chain or smart contract source code, of which 156 projects are GitHub community projects and 1 project (Ardor) is a Bitbucket community project. Evaluation work.

For 156 public chain (smart contract) projects with core main chain technical data and evaluation conditions, using a combination of objective data analysis and subjective technical evaluation, the technical evaluation model framework is used to calculate the evaluation score of its technology for developers To provide investors with their value reference, the top 20 rankings of the technical evaluation points of this project are as follows.

Rank Blockchain project Technical evaluation value
1 Ethereum Symbol
ETH
116.0
2 Cardano Symbol
ADA
97.0
3 Bitcoin Symbol
BTC
95.0
4 Komodo Symbol
KMD
90.0
5 IOTA Symbol
MIOTA
89.0
6 Stratis Symbol
STRAT
89.0
7 aelf Symbol
ELF
88.0
8 Storj Symbol
STORJ
86.0
9 Stellar Symbol
XLM
85.0
10 Monero Symbol
XMR
83.0
11 Steem Symbol
STEEM
82.0
12 Zcash Symbol
ZEC
82.0
13 NEO Symbol
NEO
82.0
14 RChain Symbol
RHOC
81.0
15 Waves Symbol
WAVES
80.0
16 Skycoin Symbol
SKY
79.0
17 Libra Symbol
Libra
79.0
18 Raiden Network Token Symbol
RDN
79.0
19 Ontology Symbol
ONT
78.0
20 Nebulas Symbol
NAS
78.0

Overall data analysis and technical evaluation results

The overall analysis of the relevant technical data of 156 public chain (smart contract) projects with core main chain technical data and evaluation conditions, the summary results are as follows.

Statistical analysis of programming languages

The overall distribution of the main chain or smart contract core programming language

The main chain or smart contract core programming language is mainly concentrated in C ++, Go, JavaScript, Solidity, Python, and Java occupy 78.916 % of the entire main chain or smart contract core programming language , regardless of the special smart contract programming language Solidity, the current main chain project The programming language used is basically in line with the mainstream programming language ranking trends, indicating that these programming language features are more in line with the development needs of blockchain projects. Among them, C ++ occupies 30.120 %, Go occupies 22.892 %, and the two programming languages ​​merged to reach 53.012 % of the utilization rate, becoming the first choice for the programming language of the public chain main chain project.

Distribution of core programming languages ​​in the top 20 of the main chain of technology evaluation

The programming languages ​​selected by the top 20 main chain projects are very scattered, distributed in 9 programming languages, of which C ++ and Go occupy an absolute advantage ( 50.000 %), but from the perspective of the application of other programming languages, it appears The diversity of technology choices indicates that some other programming languages ​​can also be well applied to the development of public chain main chain projects.

Statistical analysis of open source licenses

Open source license distribution of main chain or smart contract

The main chain or smart contract project license is mainly concentrated in MIT, indicating that most public chain main chain or smart contract projects choose loose licenses, which is more conducive to the spread and use of source code. In addition, GPL type licenses ( AGPL- 3.0, LGPL-3.0, GPL-3.0, GPL-2.0 ) occupy a total of 31.373 %.

Top 20 main chain license distribution in technology evaluation

Many of the top 20 main chain projects in technology evaluation choose open source licenses that are more inclined to GPL-type licenses, indicating that some public chain projects with higher technology evaluations pay more attention to their own core in the process of using the open source community for technology research and development. The protection of technical value and the fulfillment of the obligations of its open source code license are more conducive to its copyright protection and value maintenance.

Code submission analysis

The top 20 project rankings for the number of main chain project code submissions in the past year

The development of the above public chain main chain projects has been good in the past year, and the community continues to be active. The total number of EOS, TRON, Rchain, and 0x code submissions has reached more than 6000 times, indicating that these four public chains have been in the past year The project showed strong technical growth.

The top 20 project rankings of the main chain project code submissions in the past month

Compared with the ranking in the past year, most public chain projects are still in continuous active status recently, but the recent activity of EOS, TRON, Waves, Ark, Komodo, Bitcoin, and Namecoin has declined.

Code contributor analysis

Code contributors are the main or even the only source of vitality to support the technical development of a public chain project. Most of the core developers of the technical team in the public chain project will submit code for the project as code contributors to lead the community's technical development. And the release of public chain products.

The total number of code contributors who tracked the main chain and smart contract projects with active trajectories was 3531 , of which the total number of main chain project code contributors in the top 20 technical evaluations was 1252 , accounting for 35.46 % of the total tracked contributors It is found that the main core contributors of the blockchain are concentrated in a few high-quality public chain projects. These open source communities have attracted a large number of code contributors through operation.

Top 10 code contributors in code submissions

There are a total of 82 contributors with more than 1,000 code submissions , of which the top ten contributors are shown above. Among them, laanwj is the core code contributor of Bitcoin's main chain project, because it also contributes code to multiple other main chain projects. , submitted its code contribution amounted to 37865 times, other contributors such as sipa, gavinandresen, TheBlueMatt is active in more projects become the backbone of the core contributors.

Top 10 contributor rankings for the number of submissions in the last month

As the number of public chain projects continues to rise, and some early projects are relatively mature, core contributors often undertake to review the code submitted by other contributors. This has also made code contributors in many new projects gradually increase in code submissions.

Top 10 contributor statistics for technical capability assessment
Contributor Contributor name Contributor homepage
vbuterin vbuterin https://github.com/vbuterin
muesli Christian Muehlhaeuser https://github.com/muesli
xtaci xtaci https://github.com/xtaci
fireice-uk fireice-uk https://github.com/fireice-uk
dtolnay David Tolnay https://github.com/dtolnay
jankotek Jan Kotek https://github.com/jankotek
bytemaster Daniel Larimer https://github.com/bytemaster
divan Ivan Daniluk https://github.com/divan
sipa Pieter Wuille https://github.com/sipa
laanwj Wladimir J. van der Laan https://github.com/laanwj

Analysis of the relationship between the project and contributors

The total number of contributors is 3531. Many of these contributors cross-contribute code for different main chain projects, and this phenomenon is already very common in the public chain development community. Contributors' research and development across various projects has also caused some Qualitative and technical inheritance.

The statistics of the top 10 contributors across the most projects are as follows
The statistics of the top 20 projects with the most technical relationships in the main chain are as follows

A total of 488 contributors have submitted code for more than one main chain project. Through the Fork relationship and the intersection of contributors, the technical relationship between public chain projects is formed, and the personal technical capabilities of technical contributors are implicitly placed between projects For delivery, there are as many as 70 related main chain items.

Code similarity analysis

The code similarity algorithm is used to calculate the similarity of the source code of some public chain main chain projects. The top 10 projects with higher similarity are shown in the following table.

Public chain main chain project Public chain main chain project
Namecoin namecoin / namecoin-core Bitcoin bitcoin / bitcoin
United Bitcoin UnitedBitcoin / UnitedBitcoin Litecoin litecoin-project / litecoin
Qtum qtumproject / qtum Litecoin litecoin-project / litecoin
Viacoin viacoin / viacoin Bitcoin Gold BTCGPU / BTCGPU
DigiByte digibyte / digibyte Bitcoin bitcoin / bitcoin
Vertcoin vertcoin-project / vertcoin-core Viacoin viacoin / viacoin
United Bitcoin UnitedBitcoin / UnitedBitcoin Vertcoin vertcoin-project / vertcoin-core
Litecoin litecoin-project / litecoin Vertcoin vertcoin-project / vertcoin-core
Syscoin syscoin / syscoin Dash dashpay / dash
Komodo jl777 / komodo ZClassic z-classic / zclassic

Six-dimensional technical evaluation score ranking

Basic Technology Evaluation Top20
Top 20 Contributor Skill Match Assessment
Contributor code submission efficiency evaluation Top20
Top 20 Community Activity Assessment
Community Openness and Interactivity Evaluation Top20
White Paper and Technical Content Evaluation Top20

Technical data analysis of major public chain projects

Ethereum (116)

Basic Information

   Ethereum

organization Ethereum warehouse
Main chain warehouse ethereum / go-ethereum
Star
25337
Fork
9191
Date created 2013-12-26 21: 05: 46.000
Code contributor 459
Code submissions 11,644
Code submissions in the past month 46
Technical evaluation results

technical analysis

Basic technology

The Ethereum public chain project provides white papers and technical communities with detailed technical content. The progress of the project basically conforms to its published roadmap plan. The core programming language of the Ethereum main chain project is Go , the open source license is Other , and the code warehouse ( ethereum / Ethereum-Go ) to obtain 25337 Ge Stars and the presence of 9191 Ge Forks.

Project team and community

The Ethereum core main chain project has a total of 459 code contributors, of which the top 10 contributors in code submissions are as follows.

Contributor Total number of code submissions Number of code submissions in the past month
obscuren 2620 0
karalabe 1161 7
fjl 883 6
tgerring 523 0
zelig 324 0
holiman 223 11
CJentzsch 185 0
debris 180 0
maran 171 0
Gustav-Simonsson 159 0

There are 20 contributors who completely match the Go programming skills of the core main chain project code programming language .

Contributor Total number of code submissions Number of code submissions in the past month
kurkomisi 17 2
egonelbre 19 0
nolash 27 1
gballet 72 3
janos 74 0
rjl493456442 86 5
zsfelfoldi 134 1
holiman 223 11
karalabe 1161 7
obscuren 2620 0

The top ten contributors passed the technical capability assessment in the core main chain project as follows.

Contributor Total number of code submissions Number of code submissions in the past month
vbuterin twenty four 0
muesli 3 0
divan 4 0
egonelbre 19 0
gavofyork 40 0
karalabe 1161 7
Arachnid 36 0
cubedro 20 0
obscuren 2620 0
shazow 9 0

Ethereum Code contributors core backbone project's outstanding contributor accounting for the overall number of contributors of 26.415 % of the total amount of code was submitted to 6218 , accounting for the entire project submitted by the amount of code of 53.40 %.

The number of code submissions in the past year was 11,644 , and the number of code submissions in the past month was 46 .

There are 9652 Issues in the community, and Issues in the Open state areThe overall bug issue resolution rate is 0. From the perspective of community opening time, openness and interactivity are normal.

Project relationship and technical independence

The blockchain projects related to Ethereum are as follows.

Blockchain project Source of relevance Relevance type

Peercoin
PPC

Dogecoin
DOGE

Dash
DASH

Syscoin
SYS

Emercoin
EMC

Ubiq
UBQ

Factom
FCT

Augur
REP

Decred
DCR

Ethereum Classic
ETC

Zcash
ZEC

ZClassic
ZCL

Golem
GNT

Skycoin
SKY

Gnosis
GNO

Bancor
BNT

Status
SNT

EOS
EOS

Storj
STORJ

0x
ZRX

Raiden Network Token
RDN

CyberMiles
CMT

FuturoCoin
FTO

Ethereum and Peercoin , Dogecoin , Dash , Syscoin , Emercoin , Ubiq , Factom , Augur , Decred , Ethereum Classic , Zcash , ZClassic , Golem , Skycoin , Gnosis , Bancor , Status , EOS , Storj , 0x , Raiden Network Token , CyberMiles , FuturoCoin , The public chain project has a relationship

Main chain core code analysis

The similarity comparison and analysis of the main chain source code of Ethereum and the main chain source code of some other public chain projects are carried out . The items similar to the Ethereum main chain source code are as follows.

Blockchain project

Ubiq
UBQ

True Chain
TRUE

And timeline analysis similar code, the Ethereum backbone source code Ubiq , True Chain , part of the source code comparison similar

Cardano (97)

Basic Information

   Cardano

organization Cardano warehouse
Main chain warehouse input-output-hk / cardano-sl
Star
3306
Fork
574
Date created 2016-10-14 21: 44: 38.000
Code contributor 98
Code submissions 16,999
Code submissions in the past month 13
Technical evaluation results

technical analysis

Basic technology

The Cardano public chain project provides white papers and technical communities with detailed technical content. The progress of the project basically conforms to its published roadmap plan. The core programming language of the Cardano main chain project is Haskell , the open source license is Other , and the code warehouse ( input- output-hk / cardano-sl ) obtained 3306 Stars and 574 Forks.

Project team and community

The Cardano core main chain project has a total of 98 code contributors, of which the top 10 contributors in code submissions are as follows.

Contributor Total number of code submissions Number of code submissions in the past month
gromakovsky 2200 0
volhovm 837 0
neongreen 833 0
sectore 797 0
Martoon-00 765 0
pva701 703 0
flyingleafe 530 0
avieth 484 0
georgeee 473 0
adinapoli-iohk 391 0

There are 20 contributors that completely match the skills of the core main chain project code programming language Haskell , and the top 10 contributors of code submissions are as follows.

Contributor Total number of code submissions Number of code submissions in the past month
edsko 215 0
parsonsmatt 220 0
int-index 248 0
erikd 248 10
rockbmb 249 0
georgeee 473 0
avieth 484 0
Martoon-00 765 0
neongreen 833 0
volhovm 837 0

The top ten contributors passed the technical capability assessment in the core main chain project as follows.

Contributor Total number of code submissions Number of code submissions in the past month
puffnfresh 1 0
chrisdone 2 0
snowleopard 1 0
Anviking twenty four 0
arybczak 4 0
jagajaga 7 0
sectore 797 0
seungwonpark 1 0
domenkozar 208 0
DominikGuzei 15 0

Outstanding code contributors of the Cardano core main chain project accounted for 20.619 % of the total contributors , with a total of 1734 code submissions , which accounted for 10.20 % of the total code submissions of the project .

In the past year, there were 16,999 code submissions and 13 code submissions in the past month .

There are 4269 Issues in the community, and Issues in the Open state areThe overall resolution rate of bug issues is 90.00% . From the perspective of community opening time, the openness and interactivity are normal.

Project relationship and technical independence

The blockchain projects related to Cardano are as follows.

Blockchain project Source of relevance Relevance type

Monero
XMR

Decred
DCR

TRON
TRX

Cardano has a relationship with Monero , Decred , TRON , public chain projects

Main chain core code analysis

The similarity comparison and analysis of the main chain source code of Cardano and the main chain source code of some other public chain projects, there is no other public chain project similar to the main chain source code of Cardano .

Bitcoin (95)

Basic Information

   Bitcoin

organization Bitcoin warehouse
Main chain warehouse bitcoin / bitcoin
Star
42130
Fork
25081
Date created 2010-12-19 23: 16: 43.000
Code contributor 694
Code submissions 23,601
Code submissions in the past month 150
Technical evaluation results

technical analysis

Basic technology

Bitcoin public chain project provided with detailed technical content, white papers and technical community projects to promote progress in line with its published roadmap planning, Bitcoin backbone project core programming language C ++ , open-source license License for the Other , code repository ( Bitcoin / bitcoin ) obtained 42130 Stars and 25081 Forks.

Project team and community

There are a total of 694 code contributors in the Bitcoin core main chain project , and the top 10 contributors of code submissions are as follows.

Contributor Total number of code submissions Number of code submissions in the past month
laanwj 1625 1
sipa 1118 0
MarcoFalke 737 11
TheBlueMatt 645 0
theuni 585 0
jnewbery 509 0
practicalswift 495 5
jonasschnelli 488 1
gavinandresen 485 0
fanquake 385 7

There are 20 contributors who completely match the C ++ skills of the core main chain project code programming language , and the top 10 contributors of code submissions are as follows.

Contributor Total number of code submissions Number of code submissions in the past month
kallewoof 105 3
paveljanik 109 0
gmaxwell 163 0
hebasto 188 5
morcos 209 0
promag 263 6
ryanofsky 276 0
gavinandresen 485 0
theuni 585 0
sipa 1118 0

The top ten contributors passed the technical capability assessment in the core main chain project as follows.

Contributor Total number of code submissions Number of code submissions in the past month
sipa 1118 0
laanwj 1625 1
luke-jr 380 3
jamesob 86 0
gavinandresen 485 0
gmaxwell 163 0
petertodd 102 0
codler 10 0
jonasschnelli 488 1
TheBlueMatt 645 0

Bitcoin Code contributors core backbone project's outstanding contributor accounting for the overall number of contributors of 33.333 % of the total amount of code was submitted to 9057 , accounting for the entire project submitted by the amount of code of 38.38 %.

In the past year, there were 23,601 code submissions and 150 code submissions in the past month .

There are 17809 Issues in the community, and Issues in the Open state areThe overall resolution rate of bug issues is 90.87% . From the perspective of community opening time, the openness and interactivity are normal.

Project relationship and technical independence

The blockchain projects related to Bitcoin are as follows.

Blockchain project Source of relevance Relevance type

Litecoin
LTC

Bitcoin
BTC

Peercoin
PPC

Bitcoin
BTC

Dash
DASH

Bitcoin
BTC

Syscoin
SYS

Bitcoin
BTC

Particl
PART

Bitcoin
BTC

United Bitcoin
UBTC

Bitcoin
BTC

Namecoin
NMC

Primecoin
XPM

XRP
XRP

Dogecoin
DOGE

Vertcoin
VTC

DigiByte
DGB

ReddCoin
RDD

MonaCoin
MONA

Groestlcoin
GRS

WhiteCoin
XWC

MaidSafeCoin
MAID

Monero
XMR

Viacoin
VIA