Technical Evaluation and Analysis on Global Public Blockchains Bluebook

(2019-03)

Released by

Summary of the Report

The public blockchain is the most interesting area in the current blockchain field, and it is also the most widely used project type nowadays. However, there are some certain technical and security risks in the public blockchains. Developers, investors or enterprises, all of them, need to keep a calm and cautious attitude towards the public blockchains. In the past, the evaluation of technical aspect and development content associated with public blockchain projects was mainly according to the white paper and the present situation of the project while with a lack of objective data analysis, which resulted in the deficiency of serious data support for the analysis results. Therefore, it is becoming more and more important to extract the pure technical value in blockchain projects from the noisy background of digital tokens. And now, Beijing Tiande Technologies, cooperated with BlockData Company and other related authorities, using their self-developed Taishan Sandbox—the blockchain technology evaluation database system, and combining with a large number of historical public blockchain rating experience, complete this public blockchain project technical evaluation and analysis report.

This evaluation collects and collates the relevant information of the public blockchain corresponding to the high market value (top 243) digital tokens. Data collection date ended up March 25, 2019. By calculating and evaluating the specific indicators of the white paper, open source community, source code, technical team, project products, and other dimensions, the overall situation of the public blockchain projects is as follows:

There are 163 open source community projects with main blockchain or smart contract source code in digital tokens, 162 of which are GitHub community projects and one project (Ardor) is bitbucket community project. This evaluation mainly focuses on GitHub community projects.

For 162 public blockchain (smart contract) projects with core main-chain technology data and evaluation conditions, the evaluation scores of technology are calculated by combining objective data analysis with subjective technology evaluation, using technology evaluation model framework, providing value reference for developers and investors. The top 20 technical evaluation scores of this project are listed as follows.

Ranking Blockchain Project Technical Assessment Value
1 Ethereum Symbol
ETH
134.0
2 aelf Symbol
ELF
107.0
3 Cardano Symbol
ADA
106.0
4 Lisk Symbol
LSK
99.0
5 Bitcoin Symbol
BTC
98.0
6 Stratis Symbol
STRAT
95.0
7 EOS Symbol
EOS
91.0
8 Zcash Symbol
ZEC
90.0
9 Waves Symbol
WAVES
88.0
10 Steem Symbol
STEEM
88.0
11 Monero Symbol
XMR
88.0
12 IOTA Symbol
MIOTA
87.0
13 RChain Symbol
RHOC
87.0
14 Nebulas Symbol
NAS
85.0
15 Golem Symbol
GNT
84.0
16 Raiden Network Token Symbol
RDN
84.0
17 TRON Symbol
TRX
84.0
18 Stellar Symbol
XLM
83.0
19 Skycoin Symbol
SKY
83.0
20 NEO Symbol
NEO
83.0

Overall data analysis and technical assessment results

The related technical data of 156 public blockchain (smart contract) projects with core main chain technical data and evaluation conditions are analyzed as a whole, and the results are summarized as follows.

Statistical Analysis of Programming Languages

Overall distribution of core programming languages for main chains or smart contracts

The core programming languages of main chain or smart contract mainly concentrate on C++, Go, JavaScript, Solidity, Python and Java, which occupy 80.473% of the core programming languages of the whole main chain or smart contract. Without considering the special smart contract programming language Solidity, the programming languages used in the current main chain project basically conform to the ranking trend of the mainstream programming languages, indicating that these programming language features are more in line with the development needs of blockchain projects. Among them, C++ accounts for 28.994% and Go accounts for 23.077%. The combination of the two programming languages achieves 52.071% usage, and becomes the preferred programming language for the main chain project of the public chain.

Distribution of the Top 20 Main Chain Core Programming Languages in Technology Assessment

The programming languages chosen by the top 20 main chain projects are very dispersed and distributed on nine programming languages. Among them, the distribution of C++ and C# languages is basically consistent with the overall distribution, occupying an absolute advantage (35.000%). However, from the perspective of the wide application of other programming languages, the diversity of technology choices shows that some other programming languages can also be well applied to the development of public blockchain main chain projects.

Statistical Analysis of Open Source Licenses

Distribution of Open Source Licenses in Main Chain or Smart Contracts

The main chain or smart contract project licenses are mainly concentrated in MIT, which indicates that most public blockchain main chain or smart contract projects choose loose licenses, which is more conducive to the dissemination and use of source code. In addition, GPL type licenses (AGPL-3.0、LGPL-3.0、GPL-3.0、GPL-2.0) account for 31.169%, mainly represented by Taifang (LGPL-3.0), which is also caused by the infectivity of GPL licenses. Many projects related to the main chain of the Go language or projects without explicit license descriptions (Other) implicitly choose GPL-related protocols.

Distribution of Main Chain Licenses in Top 20 Technical Assessment

The top 20 main blockchain projects in technology evaluation are more inclined to GPL type licenses, which indicates that some public blockchain projects with higher technology evaluation pay more attention to the protection of their core technology value in the process of using open source community to carry out technology research and development. The fulfillment of their open source code licenses is more conducive to their copyright protection and value maintenance.

Quantity Analysis of Code Submission

Top 20 project rankings of main chain project code submissions in the past year

In the past year, the development progress of the above public blockchain main chain projects is good, and the community is still active. The total number of submissions of EOS, TRON, Rchain and 0x codes has reached more than 6000 times, which shows that the four public blockchain projects have shown strong technical growth in the past year.

Top 20 project rankings of main chain project code submissions in the past month

Compared with the rankings of the past year, most of the public blockchain projects have been continuously active in the near future, but the recent activities of EOS, TRON, Waves, Ark, Komodo, Bitcoin and Namecoin have declined.

Analysis of Code Contributor

Code contributors are the main or even the only source of vitality to support the technological development of a public blockchain project. Most of the core developers of the technical team in the public blockchain project will submit code for the project as code contributors to lead the technological development of the community and the release of public blockchain products.

The total number of code contributors tracing the active trajectory of main chain and smart contract projects is 3192.Among them, the total number of code contributors of the top 20 main chain projects in technical assessment is 1141, accounting for35.75%of the total number of tracked contributors. It can be found that the core contributors of the main blockchain are concentrated in a few high-quality public blockchain projects, and these open source communities attracted a large number of code contributors through their operations.

Code Contributors in The Top 10 Of Code Submissions

There are75 contributors with more than 1000 code submissions. The top ten contributors are shown in the figure above. As the core code contributor of Bitcoin main chain project, laranwj contributes 36103 code submissions due to its contribution to many other main chain projects. Other contributors such as sipa, gavinandresen, TheBlueMatt are also active as a core code contributor in multiple main chain projects.

Top 10 Contributors Ranking of Submissions in The Past Month

With the increasing number of public blockchain projects, some early projects are relatively mature. Core contributors often undertake the audit of code submitted by other contributors. This has also led to a gradual increase in code submission for many new project contributors.

Statistics of Contributors in the Top 10 of Technical Capability Assessment
Contributor Contributor name Contributor Home Page
vbuterin vbuterin https://github.com/vbuterin
liuchengxu Liu-Cheng Xu https://github.com/liuchengxu
fireice-uk fireice-uk https://github.com/fireice-uk
xtaci xtaci https://github.com/xtaci
jankotek Jan Kotek https://github.com/jankotek
bytemaster Daniel Larimer https://github.com/bytemaster
divan Ivan Daniluk https://github.com/divan
laanwj Wladimir J. van der Laan https://github.com/laanwj
luke-jr Luke Dashjr https://github.com/luke-jr
jamesob James O'Beirne https://github.com/jamesob

Analysis of the Relationship between Projects and Contributors

The total number of contributors is 3192, many of which cross-contribute codes to different main-chain projects, and this phenomenon has become very common in the public blockchain development community. The research and development of contributors across various projects has also resulted in homogeneity and technological inheritance of some of the projects.

Statistics of the Top 10 Contributors Spanning the Largest Number of Projects
The statistics of the top 20 main chain projects with the most technical relationships are as follows.

A total of 429 contributors have submitted codes for more than one main chain project. Through Fork relationship and the intersection of contributors, the technical relationship between public blockchain projects is formed. The individual technical capabilities of technical contributors are implicitly transferred among projects, among which 70 are related to the main chain projects.

Code Similarity Analysis

The code similarity algorithm is used to compare and calculate the source code similarity of some public blockchain main chain projects, among which the top 10 items with high similarity are shown in the table below.。

Public blockchain Main Chain Project Public blockchain Main Chain Project
Namecoin namecoin/namecoin-core Bitcoin bitcoin/bitcoin
United Bitcoin UnitedBitcoin/UnitedBitcoin Litecoin litecoin-project/litecoin
Qtum qtumproject/qtum Litecoin litecoin-project/litecoin
Viacoin viacoin/viacoin Bitcoin Gold BTCGPU/BTCGPU
DigiByte digibyte/digibyte Bitcoin bitcoin/bitcoin
Vertcoin vertcoin-project/vertcoin-core Viacoin viacoin/viacoin
United Bitcoin UnitedBitcoin/UnitedBitcoin Vertcoin vertcoin-project/vertcoin-core
Litecoin litecoin-project/litecoin Vertcoin vertcoin-project/vertcoin-core
Syscoin syscoin/syscoin Dash dashpay/dash
Komodo jl777/komodo ZClassic z-classic/zclassic

Six-Dimensional Technical Assessment Score List

Basic Technology Assessment Top20
Contributor Skill Matching Assessment Top20
Contributor Code Submission Effectiveness Evaluation Top20
Community Activity Assessment Top20
Top20: Community Openness and Interactivity Assessment
White Paper and Technical Content Assessment Top20

Technical Data Analysis of Major Public blockchain Projects

Ethereum(134)

Essential Information

   Ethereum

organization Ethereum repository 202
Main chain repository ethereum/go-ethereum
Star
23024
Fork
8182
creation date 2013-12-26 21:05:46.000
Code Contributor 407
Code submission 10,880
Code submission in the past month 96
Technical assessment results:

Technical Analysis

Basic Technology

The Ethereum public blockchain project provides white papers with detailed technical content and technical communities. The progress of the project basically conforms to its published roadmap plan. The core programming language of the Ethereum main chain project is Go the open source license is Other, and the code repositoryethereum/go-ethereum)has 23024 Stars and 8182 Forks,Achieved a very high degree of community acceptance.

Project Team and Community

The Ethereum core main chain project has 407 code contributors, of which the top 10 contributors are as follows.

Contributor Number of total code submissions Number of code submissions in the past month
obscuren 2620 0
karalabe 1115 18
fjl 869 1
tgerring 523 0
zelig 325 1
CJentzsch 185 0
debris 180 0
maran 171 0
Gustav-Simonsson 159 0
holiman 153 7

There are 20 contributors matching the core main chain project code programming language Go skills, among which the top 10 contributors are as follows.

Contributor Number of total code submissions Number of code submissions in the past month
markya0616 10 0
kurkomisi 14 1
lmars 17 0
egonelbre 19 0
nolash 27 2
rjl493456442 67 3
janos 72 0
zsfelfoldi 127 5
karalabe 1115 18
obscuren 2620 0

The top ten contributors to the core main chain project are as follows.

Contributor Number of total code submissions Number of code submissions in the past month
vbuterin 24 0
divan 4 0
gravityblast 3 0
karalabe 1115 18
gavofyork 40 0
Arachnid 34 1
cubedro 20 0
obscuren 2620 0
shazow 8 0
ligi 14 0

There are many code contributors to Ethereum core main chain project, including some developers with strong technical ability. Among them, excellent contributors account for 24.107% of the total number of contributors, and the total number of code submissions is 5964, accounting for54.82%。

In the past year, 10,880 code submissions were made and 96

There are 8474 issues in the whole community,552 issues in the open state and the overall solution rate of Bug Issues is 0,From the perspective of the time when the community is open, the openness and interaction are normal.。

Project Relations and Technical Independence

EthereumThe Blockchain items associated with Ethereum are as follows.

Blockchain Project Types of correlation Sources of correlation

Ubiq
UBQ

Ethereum
ETH

Factom
FCT

Augur
REP

Decred
DCR

Ethereum Classic
ETC

Golem
GNT

Gnosis
GNO

Bancor
BNT

Status
SNT

EOS
EOS

Storj
STORJ

CyberMiles
CMT

SmartMesh
SMT

Ethereum is related to Ubiq, Factom, Augur, Decred, Ethereum Classic, Golem, Gnosis, Bancor, Status, EOS, Storj, CyberMiles, SmartMesh,public Chain Project

Main Chain Core Code Analysis

The similarity between Ethereum main chain source code and some other public blockchain project main chain source code is compared and analyzed. The items similar to Ethereum main chain source code are as follows.

Blockchain Project

Ubiq
UBQ

True Chain
TRUE

True Chain
TRUE

Dispatch
Dispatch

Ethereummain chain source code is similar to some ofUbiq,True Chain,True Chain,Dispatch,source code

aelf(107)

Essential Information

   aelf

organization aelf repository 15
Main chain repository AElfProject/AElf
Star
537
Fork
130
creation date 2017-11-25 15:59:31.000
Code Contributor 29
Code submission 10,477
Code submission in the past month 1921
Technical assessment results:

Technical Analysis

Basic Technology

The aelf public blockchain project provides white papers with detailed technical content and technical communities. The progress of the project basically conforms to its published roadmap plan. The core programming language of the aelf main chain project is C# the open source license is Other, and the code repositoryAElfProject/AElf)has 537 Stars and 130 Forks,Achieved a very high degree of community acceptance.

Project Team and Community

The aelf core main chain project has 29 code contributors, of which the top 10 contributors are as follows.

Contributor Number of total code submissions Number of code submissions in the past month
shiwk 1160 86
gldeng 1091 162
EanCuznaivy 1084 179
zhxymh 691 116
loning 603 190
samfrb 565 37
rosona 276 72
EricBlack 236 125
dennislfurrer 152 0
PadawanZH 136 0

There are 20 contributors matching the core main chain project code programming language C# skills, among which the top 10 contributors are as follows.

Contributor Number of total code submissions Number of code submissions in the past month
zhaoyiqi726 4 0
Justbeingjustin 7 0
reyoung1110 25 0
PadawanZH 136 0
EricBlack 236 125
rosona 276 72
samfrb 565 37
loning 603 190
zhxymh 691 116
EanCuznaivy 1084 179

The top ten contributors to the core main chain project are as follows.

Contributor Number of total code submissions Number of code submissions in the past month
xtaci 96 0
Nikolaj-K 2 0
34 6
loning 603 190
EanCuznaivy 1084 179
daotianya 3 0
xuxiao415 4 0
zhaoyiqi726 4 0
shiwk 1160 86
mashujie 2 0

There are many code contributors to aelf core main chain project, including some developers with strong technical ability. Among them, excellent contributors account for 3.704% of the total number of contributors, and the total number of code submissions is 96, accounting for0.92%。

In the past year, 10,477 code submissions were made and 1921

There are 1496 issues in the whole community,103 issues in the open state and the overall solution rate of Bug Issues is 79.69%,From the perspective of the time when the community is open, the openness and interaction are normal.。

Project Relations and Technical Independence

aelfThe Blockchain items associated with Ethereum are as follows.

Blockchain Project Types of correlation Sources of correlation

0x
ZRX

ChainLink
LINK

aelf is related to 0x, ChainLink,public Chain Project

Main Chain Core Code Analysis

The main chain source code of aelf is compared and analyzed with the main chain source code of some other public chain projects. At present, there are no other public chain projects similar to the main chain source code ofaelf

Cardano(106)

Essential Information

   Cardano

organization Cardano repository 172
Main chain repository input-output-hk/cardano-sl
Star
3205
Fork
547
creation date 2016-10-14 21:44:38.000
Code Contributor
Code submission 16,772
Code submission in the past month 12
Technical assessment results:

Technical Analysis

Basic Technology

The Cardano public blockchain project provides white papers with detailed technical content and technical communities. The progress of the project basically conforms to its published roadmap plan. The core programming language of the Cardano main chain project is Haskell the open source license is Other, and the code repositoryinput-output-hk/cardano-sl)has 3205 Stars and 547 Forks,Achieved a very high degree of community acceptance.

Project Team and Community

The Cardano core main chain project has code contributors, of which the top 10 contributors are as follows.

Contributor Number of total code submissions Number of code submissions in the past month
gromakovsky 2200 0
volhovm 837 0
neongreen 833 0
sectore 797 0
Martoon-00 765 0
pva701 703 0
flyingleafe 530 0
avieth 484 0
georgeee 473 0
adinapoli-iohk 395 0

There are 20 contributors matching the core main chain project code programming language Haskell skills, among which the top 10 contributors are as follows.

Contributor Number of total code submissions Number of code submissions in the past month
aspiwack 125 0
edsko 215 0
parsonsmatt 220 0
erikd 230 0
int-index 248 0
rockbmb 249 0
georgeee 473 0
avieth 484 0
Martoon-00 765 0
neongreen 833 0

The top ten contributors to the core main chain project are as follows.

Contributor Number of total code submissions Number of code submissions in the past month
puffnfresh 1 0
chrisdone 2 0
Anviking 24 0
snowleopard 1 0
arybczak 4 0
sectore 797 0
jagajaga 7 0
nh2 2 0
DominikGuzei 15 0
h4ck3rm1k3 2 0

There are many code contributors to Cardano core main chain project, including some developers with strong technical ability. Among them, excellent contributors account for 18.681% of the total number of contributors, and the total number of code submissions is 1433, accounting for8.54%。

In the past year, 16,772 code submissions were made and 12

There are 4122 issues in the whole community,152 issues in the open state and the overall solution rate of Bug Issues is 66.67%,From the perspective of the time when the community is open, the openness and interaction are normal.。

Project Relations and Technical Independence

CardanoThe Blockchain items associated with Ethereum are as follows.

Blockchain Project Types of correlation Sources of correlation

Monero
XMR

Decred
DCR

TRON
TRX

Cardano is related to Monero, Decred, TRON,public Chain Project

Main Chain Core Code Analysis

The main chain source code of Cardano is compared and analyzed with the main chain source code of some other public chain projects. At present, there are no other public chain projects similar to the main chain source code ofCardano

Lisk(99)

Essential Information

   Lisk

organization Lisk repository 31
Main chain repository LiskHQ/lisk
Star
2634
Fork
414
creation date 2016-02-02 05:45:35.000
Code Contributor 61
Code submission 18,742
Code submission in the past month 433
Technical assessment results:

Technical Analysis

Basic Technology

The Lisk public blockchain project provides white papers with detailed technical content and technical communities. The progress of the project basically conforms to its published roadmap plan. The core programming language of the Lisk main chain project is JavaScript the open source license is Other, and the code repositoryLiskHQ/lisk)has 2634 Stars and 414 Forks,Achieved a very high degree of community acceptance.

Project Team and Community

The Lisk core main chain project has 61 code contributors, of which the top 10 contributors are as follows.

Contributor Number of total code submissions Number of code submissions in the past month
karmacoma 2362 0
MaciejBaj 1068 10
4miners 926 0
nazarhussain 909 4
diego-G 784 22
SargeKhan 540 0
ManuGowda 475 0
lsilvs 362 51
Tschakki 328 9
jondubois 287 0

There are 20 contributors matching the core main chain project code programming language JavaScript skills, among which the top 10 contributors are as follows.

Contributor Number of total code submissions Number of code submissions in the past month
tobiaslins 4 0
TheGoldenEye 16 0
willclarktech 44 0
michielmulders 95 39
vitaly-t 159 0
limiaspasdaniel 166 36
pablitovicente 216 0
yatki 268 86
jondubois 287 0
SargeKhan 540 0

The top ten contributors to the core main chain project are as follows.

Contributor Number of total code submissions Number of code submissions in the past month
jondubois 287 0
tobiaslins 4 0
5an1ty 2 0
vitaly-t 159 0
dakk 6 0
fix 33 0
m-schmoock 4 0
MaxKK 3 0
karmacoma 2362 0
Isabello 3 0

There are many code contributors to Lisk core main chain project, including some developers with strong technical ability. Among them, excellent contributors account for 6.383% of the total number of contributors, and the total number of code submissions is 293, accounting for1.56%。

In the past year, 18,742 code submissions were made and 433

There are 3239 issues in the whole community,163 issues in the open state and the overall solution rate of Bug Issues is 96.96%,From the perspective of the time when the community is open, the openness and interaction are normal.。

Project Relations and Technical Independence

LiskThe Blockchain items associated with Ethereum are as follows.

Blockchain Project Types of correlation Sources of correlation

Groestlcoin
GRS

Ark
ARK

Lisk is related to Groestlcoin, Ark,public Chain Project

Main Chain Core Code Analysis

The main chain source code of Lisk is compared and analyzed with the main chain source code of some other public chain projects. At present, there are no other public chain projects similar to the main chain source code ofLisk

Bitcoin(98)

Essential Information

   Bitcoin

organization Bitcoin repository 4
Main chain repository bitcoin/bitcoin
Star
37776
Fork
22403
creation date 2010-12-19 23:16:43.000
Code Contributor 621
Code submission 20,240
Code submission in the past month 115
Technical assessment results:

Technical Analysis

Basic Technology

The Bitcoin public blockchain project provides white papers with detailed technical content and technical communities. The progress of the project basically conforms to its published roadmap plan. The core programming language of the Bitcoin main chain project is C++ the open source license is Other, and the code repositorybitcoin/bitcoin)has 37776 Stars and 22403 Forks,Achieved a very high degree of community acceptance.

Project Team and Community

The Bitcoin core main chain project has 621 code contributors, of which the top 10 contributors are as follows.

Contributor Number of total code submissions Number of code submissions in the past month
laanwj 1622 0
sipa 1098 5
MarcoFalke 641 17
TheBlueMatt 620 0
theuni 585 1
gavinandresen 485 0
jonasschnelli 479 0
jnewbery 441 8
practicalswift 401 2
luke-jr 355 1

There are 20 contributors matching the core main chain project code programming language C++ skills, among which the top 10 contributors are as follows.

Contributor Number of total code submissions Number of code submissions in the past month
ken2812221 105 0
paveljanik 109 0
gmaxwell 163 0
promag 199 6
morcos 209 0
ryanofsky 230 0
gavinandresen 485 0
theuni 585 1
MarcoFalke 641 17
sipa 1098 5

The top ten contributors to the core main chain project are as follows.

Contributor Number of total code submissions Number of code submissions in the past month
laanwj 1622 0
luke-jr 355 1
jamesob 45 0
sipa 1098 5
gavinandresen 485 0
petertodd 102 0
gmaxwell 163 0
codler 10 0
jonasschnelli 479 0
TheBlueMatt 620 0

There are many code contributors to Bitcoin core main chain project, including some developers with strong technical ability. Among them, excellent contributors account for 30.841% of the total number of contributors, and the total number of code submissions is 7927, accounting for39.17%。

In the past year, 20,240 code submissions were made and 115

There are 15532 issues in the whole community,672 issues in the open state and the overall solution rate of Bug Issues is 95.95%,From the perspective of the time when the community is open, the openness and interaction are normal.。

Project Relations and Technical Independence

BitcoinThe Blockchain items associated with Ethereum are as follows.

Blockchain Project Types of correlation Sources of correlation

Litecoin
LTC

Bitcoin
BTC

Peercoin
PPC

Bitcoin
BTC

Dash
DASH

Bitcoin
BTC

Syscoin
SYS

Bitcoin
BTC

Particl
PART

Bitcoin
BTC

United Bitcoin
UBTC

Bitcoin
BTC

Ravencoin
RVN

Bitcoin
BTC

Namecoin
NMC

Primecoin
XPM

XRP
XRP

Dogecoin
DOGE

Vertcoin
VTC

DigiByte
DGB

ReddCoin
RDD

MonaCoin
MONA

Groestlcoin
GRS

WhiteCoin
XWC

MaidSafeCoin
MAID

Monero
XMR

Viacoin
VIA

Stellar
XLM

Emercoin
EMC

Factom
FCT

Decred
DCR

PIVX
PIVX