Technical Evaluation and Analysis on Global Public Blockchains Bluebook

(2019-10)

Released by

Summary of the Report

The public blockchain is the most interesting area in the current blockchain field, and it is also the most widely used project type nowadays. However, there are some certain technical and security risks in the public blockchains. Developers, investors or enterprises, all of them, need to keep a calm and cautious attitude towards the public blockchains. In the past, the evaluation of technical aspect and development content associated with public blockchain projects was mainly according to the white paper and the present situation of the project while with a lack of objective data analysis, which resulted in the deficiency of serious data support for the analysis results. Therefore, it is becoming more and more important to extract the pure technical value in blockchain projects from the noisy background of digital tokens. And now, Beijing Tiande Technologies, cooperated with BlockData Company and other related authorities, using their self-developed Taishan Sandbox—the blockchain technology evaluation database system, and combining with a large number of historical public blockchain rating experience, complete this public blockchain project technical evaluation and analysis report.

This evaluation collects and collates the relevant information of the public blockchain corresponding to the high market value (top 243) digital tokens. Data collection date ended up October 10, 2019. By calculating and evaluating the specific indicators of the white paper, open source community, source code, technical team, project products, and other dimensions, the overall situation of the public blockchain projects is as follows:

There are 163 open source community projects with main blockchain or smart contract source code in digital tokens, 162 of which are GitHub community projects and one project (Ardor) is bitbucket community project. This evaluation mainly focuses on GitHub community projects.

For 162 public blockchain (smart contract) projects with core main-chain technology data and evaluation conditions, the evaluation scores of technology are calculated by combining objective data analysis with subjective technology evaluation, using technology evaluation model framework, providing value reference for developers and investors. The top 20 technical evaluation scores of this project are listed as follows.

Ranking Blockchain Project Technical Assessment Value
1 Ethereum Symbol
ETH
119.0
2 Cardano Symbol
ADA
100.0
3 Lisk Symbol
LSK
96.0
4 Stratis Symbol
STRAT
93.0
5 Bitcoin Symbol
BTC
92.0
6 IOTA Symbol
MIOTA
88.0
7 RChain Symbol
RHOC
88.0
8 aelf Symbol
ELF
87.0
9 Komodo Symbol
KMD
87.0
10 Stellar Symbol
XLM
85.0
11 Steem Symbol
STEEM
85.0
12 Waves Symbol
WAVES
83.0
13 Monero Symbol
XMR
83.0
14 Skycoin Symbol
SKY
83.0
15 NEO Symbol
NEO
82.0
16 Raiden Network Token Symbol
RDN
82.0
17 Zcash Symbol
ZEC
82.0
18 Nebulas Symbol
NAS
81.0
19 Golem Symbol
GNT
81.0
20 Storj Symbol
STORJ
78.0

Overall data analysis and technical assessment results

The related technical data of 156 public blockchain (smart contract) projects with core main chain technical data and evaluation conditions are analyzed as a whole, and the results are summarized as follows.

Statistical Analysis of Programming Languages

Overall distribution of core programming languages for main chains or smart contracts

The core programming languages of main chain or smart contract mainly concentrate on C++, Go, JavaScript, Solidity, Python and Java, which occupy 80.000% of the core programming languages of the whole main chain or smart contract. Without considering the special smart contract programming language Solidity, the programming languages used in the current main chain project basically conform to the ranking trend of the mainstream programming languages, indicating that these programming language features are more in line with the development needs of blockchain projects. Among them, C++ accounts for 30.000% and Go accounts for 23.125%. The combination of the two programming languages achieves 53.125% usage, and becomes the preferred programming language for the main chain project of the public chain.

Distribution of the Top 20 Main Chain Core Programming Languages in Technology Assessment

The programming languages chosen by the top 20 main chain projects are very dispersed and distributed on nine programming languages. Among them, the distribution of C++ and Go languages is basically consistent with the overall distribution, occupying an absolute advantage (47.368%). However, from the perspective of the wide application of other programming languages, the diversity of technology choices shows that some other programming languages can also be well applied to the development of public blockchain main chain projects.

Statistical Analysis of Open Source Licenses

Distribution of Open Source Licenses in Main Chain or Smart Contracts

The main chain or smart contract project licenses are mainly concentrated in MIT, which indicates that most public blockchain main chain or smart contract projects choose loose licenses, which is more conducive to the dissemination and use of source code. In addition, GPL type licenses (AGPL-3.0、LGPL-3.0、GPL-3.0、GPL-2.0) account for 30.612%, mainly represented by Taifang (LGPL-3.0), which is also caused by the infectivity of GPL licenses. Many projects related to the main chain of the Go language or projects without explicit license descriptions (Other) implicitly choose GPL-related protocols.

Distribution of Main Chain Licenses in Top 20 Technical Assessment

The top 20 main blockchain projects in technology evaluation are more inclined to GPL type licenses, which indicates that some public blockchain projects with higher technology evaluation pay more attention to the protection of their core technology value in the process of using open source community to carry out technology research and development. The fulfillment of their open source code licenses is more conducive to their copyright protection and value maintenance.

Quantity Analysis of Code Submission

Top 20 project rankings of main chain project code submissions in the past year

In the past year, the development progress of the above public blockchain main chain projects is good, and the community is still active. The total number of submissions of EOS, TRON, Rchain and 0x codes has reached more than 6000 times, which shows that the four public blockchain projects have shown strong technical growth in the past year.

Top 20 project rankings of main chain project code submissions in the past month

Compared with the rankings of the past year, most of the public blockchain projects have been continuously active in the near future, but the recent activities of EOS, TRON, Waves, Ark, Komodo, Bitcoin and Namecoin have declined.

Analysis of Code Contributor

Code contributors are the main or even the only source of vitality to support the technological development of a public blockchain project. Most of the core developers of the technical team in the public blockchain project will submit code for the project as code contributors to lead the technological development of the community and the release of public blockchain products.

The total number of code contributors tracing the active trajectory of main chain and smart contract projects is 3264.Among them, the total number of code contributors of the top 20 main chain projects in technical assessment is 1140, accounting for34.93%of the total number of tracked contributors. It can be found that the core contributors of the main blockchain are concentrated in a few high-quality public blockchain projects, and these open source communities attracted a large number of code contributors through their operations.

Code Contributors in The Top 10 Of Code Submissions

There are79 contributors with more than 1000 code submissions. The top ten contributors are shown in the figure above. As the core code contributor of Bitcoin main chain project, laranwj contributes 37907 code submissions due to its contribution to many other main chain projects. Other contributors such as sipa, gavinandresen, TheBlueMatt are also active as a core code contributor in multiple main chain projects.

Top 10 Contributors Ranking of Submissions in The Past Month

With the increasing number of public blockchain projects, some early projects are relatively mature. Core contributors often undertake the audit of code submitted by other contributors. This has also led to a gradual increase in code submission for many new project contributors.

Statistics of Contributors in the Top 10 of Technical Capability Assessment
Contributor Contributor name Contributor Home Page
vbuterin vbuterin https://github.com/vbuterin
muesli Christian Muehlhaeuser https://github.com/muesli
xtaci xtaci https://github.com/xtaci
fireice-uk fireice-uk https://github.com/fireice-uk
jankotek Jan Kotek https://github.com/jankotek
bytemaster Daniel Larimer https://github.com/bytemaster
divan Ivan Daniluk https://github.com/divan
sipa Pieter Wuille https://github.com/sipa
luke-jr Luke Dashjr https://github.com/luke-jr
laanwj Wladimir J. van der Laan https://github.com/laanwj

Analysis of the Relationship between Projects and Contributors

The total number of contributors is 3264, many of which cross-contribute codes to different main-chain projects, and this phenomenon has become very common in the public blockchain development community. The research and development of contributors across various projects has also resulted in homogeneity and technological inheritance of some of the projects.

Statistics of the Top 10 Contributors Spanning the Largest Number of Projects
The statistics of the top 20 main chain projects with the most technical relationships are as follows.

A total of 427 contributors have submitted codes for more than one main chain project. Through Fork relationship and the intersection of contributors, the technical relationship between public blockchain projects is formed. The individual technical capabilities of technical contributors are implicitly transferred among projects, among which 70 are related to the main chain projects.

Code Similarity Analysis

The code similarity algorithm is used to compare and calculate the source code similarity of some public blockchain main chain projects, among which the top 10 items with high similarity are shown in the table below.。

Public blockchain Main Chain Project Public blockchain Main Chain Project
Namecoin namecoin/namecoin-core Bitcoin bitcoin/bitcoin
United Bitcoin UnitedBitcoin/UnitedBitcoin Litecoin litecoin-project/litecoin
Qtum qtumproject/qtum Litecoin litecoin-project/litecoin
Viacoin viacoin/viacoin Bitcoin Gold BTCGPU/BTCGPU
DigiByte digibyte/digibyte Bitcoin bitcoin/bitcoin
Vertcoin vertcoin-project/vertcoin-core Viacoin viacoin/viacoin
United Bitcoin UnitedBitcoin/UnitedBitcoin Vertcoin vertcoin-project/vertcoin-core
Litecoin litecoin-project/litecoin Vertcoin vertcoin-project/vertcoin-core
Syscoin syscoin/syscoin Dash dashpay/dash
Komodo jl777/komodo ZClassic z-classic/zclassic

Six-Dimensional Technical Assessment Score List

Basic Technology Assessment Top20
Contributor Skill Matching Assessment Top20
Contributor Code Submission Effectiveness Evaluation Top20
Community Activity Assessment Top20
Top20: Community Openness and Interactivity Assessment
White Paper and Technical Content Assessment Top20

Technical Data Analysis of Major Public blockchain Projects

Ethereum(119)

Essential Information

   Ethereum

organization Ethereum Warehouse
Main chain repository ethereum/go-ethereum
Star
24299
Fork
8774
creation date 2013-12-26 21:05:46.000
Code Contributor 429
Code submission 11,251
Code submission in the past month 54
Technical assessment results:

Technical Analysis

Basic Technology

The Ethereum public blockchain project provides white papers with detailed technical content and technical communities. The progress of the project basically conforms to its published roadmap plan. The core programming language of the Ethereum main chain project is Go the open source license is Other, and the code warehouse ethereum/go-ethereum)has 24299 Stars and 8774 Forks,Achieved a very high degree of community acceptance.

Project Team and Community

The Ethereum core main chain project has 429 code contributors, of which the top 10 contributors are as follows.

Contributor Number of total code submissions Number of code submissions in the past month
obscuren 2620 0
karalabe 1210 16
fjl 897 6
tgerring 523 0
zelig 324 0
holiman 198 6
CJentzsch 185 0
debris 180 0
maran 171 0
Gustav-Simonsson 159 0

There are 20 contributors matching the core main chain project code programming language Go skills, among which the top 10 contributors are as follows.

Contributor Number of total code submissions Number of code submissions in the past month
kurkomisi 18 0
egonelbre 19 0
nolash 27 0
janos 74 0
gballet 77 0
rjl493456442 111 1
zsfelfoldi 136 1
holiman 198 6
karalabe 1210 16
obscuren 2620 0

The top ten contributors to the core main chain project are as follows.

Contributor Number of total code submissions Number of code submissions in the past month
vbuterin 24 0
muesli 3 0
divan 4 0
egonelbre 19 0
gavofyork 40 0
karalabe 1210 16
cubedro 20 0
Arachnid 36 0
obscuren 2620 0
shazow 9 0

There are many code contributors to Ethereum core main chain project, including some developers with strong technical ability. Among them, excellent contributors account for 26.214% of the total number of contributors, and the total number of code submissions is 6252, accounting for55.57%。

In the past year, 11,251 code submissions were made and 54

There are 9160 issues in the whole community,347 issues in the open state and the overall solution rate of Bug Issues is 0,From the perspective of the time when the community is open, the openness and interaction are normal.。

Project Relations and Technical Independence

EthereumThe Blockchain items associated with Ethereum are as follows.

Blockchain Project Types of correlation Sources of correlation

Ubiq
UBQ

Factom
FCT

Augur
REP

Decred
DCR

Ethereum Classic
ETC

Golem
GNT

Skycoin
SKY

Gnosis
GNO

Bancor
BNT

Status
SNT

EOS
EOS

Storj
STORJ

0x
ZRX

Raiden Network Token
RDN

CyberMiles
CMT

Ethereum is related to Ubiq, Factom, Augur, Decred, Ethereum Classic, Golem, Skycoin, Gnosis, Bancor, Status, EOS, Storj, 0x, Raiden Network Token, CyberMiles,public Chain Project

Main Chain Core Code Analysis

The similarity between Ethereum main chain source code and some other public blockchain project main chain source code is compared and analyzed. The items similar to Ethereum main chain source code are as follows.

Blockchain Project

Ubiq
UBQ

True Chain
TRUE

Ethereummain chain source code is similar to some ofUbiq,True Chain,source code

Cardano(100)

Essential Information

   Cardano

organization Cardano Warehouse
Main chain repository input-output-hk/cardano-sl
Star
3306
Fork
574
creation date 2016-10-14 21:44:38.000
Code Contributor 98
Code submission 16,948
Code submission in the past month 21
Technical assessment results:

Technical Analysis

Basic Technology

The Cardano public blockchain project provides white papers with detailed technical content and technical communities. The progress of the project basically conforms to its published roadmap plan. The core programming language of the Cardano main chain project is Haskell the open source license is Other, and the code warehouse input-output-hk/cardano-sl)has 3306 Stars and 574 Forks,Achieved a very high degree of community acceptance.

Project Team and Community

The Cardano core main chain project has 98 code contributors, of which the top 10 contributors are as follows.

Contributor Number of total code submissions Number of code submissions in the past month
gromakovsky 2200 0
volhovm 837 0
neongreen 833 0
sectore 797 0
Martoon-00 765 0
pva701 703 0
flyingleafe 530 0
avieth 484 0
georgeee 473 0
adinapoli-iohk 391 0

There are 20 contributors matching the core main chain project code programming language Haskell skills, among which the top 10 contributors are as follows.

Contributor Number of total code submissions Number of code submissions in the past month
edsko 215 0
parsonsmatt 220 0
int-index 248 0
rockbmb 249 0
erikd 265 0
georgeee 473 0
avieth 484 0
Martoon-00 765 0
neongreen 833 0
volhovm 837 0

The top ten contributors to the core main chain project are as follows.

Contributor Number of total code submissions Number of code submissions in the past month
puffnfresh 1 0
chrisdone 2 0
Anviking 24 0
snowleopard 1 0
arybczak 42 0
jagajaga 7 0
sectore 797 0
DominikGuzei 15 0
domenkozar 208 0
h4ck3rm1k3 2 0

There are many code contributors to Cardano core main chain project, including some developers with strong technical ability. Among them, excellent contributors account for 18.947368421052634% of the total number of contributors, and the total number of code submissions is 1769, accounting for10.44%。

In the past year, 16,948 code submissions were made and 21

There are 4239 issues in the whole community,174 issues in the open state and the overall solution rate of Bug Issues is 66.67%,From the perspective of the time when the community is open, the openness and interaction are normal.。

Project Relations and Technical Independence

CardanoThe Blockchain items associated with Ethereum are as follows.

Blockchain Project Types of correlation Sources of correlation

Monero
XMR

Decred
DCR

TRON
TRX

Cardano is related to Monero, Decred, TRON,public Chain Project

Main Chain Core Code Analysis

The main chain source code of Cardano is compared and analyzed with the main chain source code of some other public chain projects. At present, there are no other public chain projects similar to the main chain source code ofCardano

Lisk(98)

Essential Information

   Lisk

organization Lisk Warehouse 32
Main chain repository LiskHQ/lisk
Star
2490
Fork
386
creation date 2016-02-02 05:45:35.000
Code Contributor 61
Code submission 19,486
Code submission in the past month 433
Technical assessment results:

Technical Analysis

Basic Technology

The Lisk public blockchain project provides white papers with detailed technical content and technical communities. The progress of the project basically conforms to its published roadmap plan. The core programming language of the Lisk main chain project is JavaScript the open source license is Other, and the code warehouse LiskHQ/lisk)has 2490 Stars and 386 Forks,Achieved a very high degree of community acceptance.

Project Team and Community

The Lisk core main chain project has 61 code contributors, of which the top 10 contributors are as follows.

Contributor Number of total code submissions Number of code submissions in the past month
karmacoma 2362 0
MaciejBaj 1002 7
4miners 926 0
nazarhussain 597 5
SargeKhan 531 8
ManuGowda 450 12
diego-G 420 0
Tschakki 310 0
jondubois 287 1
pablitovicente 216 0

There are 20 contributors matching the core main chain project code programming language JavaScript skills, among which the top 10 contributors are as follows.

Contributor Number of total code submissions Number of code submissions in the past month
5an1ty 2 0
chiptus 3 0
MaxKK 3 0
tobiaslins 4 0
TheGoldenEye 16 0
willclarktech 44 0
yatki 104 12
vitaly-t 159 0
jondubois 287 1
SargeKhan 531 8

The top ten contributors to the core main chain project are as follows.

Contributor Number of total code submissions Number of code submissions in the past month
jondubois 287 1
tobiaslins 4 0
5an1ty 2 0
vitaly-t 159 0
dakk 6 0
fix 33 0
m-schmoock 4 0
MaxKK 3 0
karmacoma 2362 0
Isabello 3 0

There are many code contributors to Lisk core main chain project, including some developers with strong technical ability. Among them, excellent contributors account for 6.383% of the total number of contributors, and the total number of code submissions is 293, accounting for1.50%。

In the past year, 19,486 code submissions were made and 433

There are 2461 issues in the whole community,203 issues in the open state and the overall solution rate of Bug Issues is 98.18%,From the perspective of the time when the community is open, the openness and interaction are normal.。

Project Relations and Technical Independence

LiskThe Blockchain items associated with Ethereum are as follows.

Blockchain Project Types of correlation Sources of correlation

Groestlcoin
GRS

Ark
ARK

Lisk is related to Groestlcoin, Ark,public Chain Project

Main Chain Core Code Analysis

The main chain source code of Lisk is compared and analyzed with the main chain source code of some other public chain projects. At present, there are no other public chain projects similar to the main chain source code ofLisk

Stratis(93)

Essential Information

   Stratis

organization Stratis Warehouse
Main chain repository stratisproject/StratisBitcoinFullNode
Star
690
Fork
306
creation date 2016-09-03 12:32:51.000
Code Contributor 64
Code submission 3,767
Code submission in the past month 33
Technical assessment results:

Technical Analysis

Basic Technology

The Stratis public blockchain project provides white papers with detailed technical content and technical communities. The progress of the project basically conforms to its published roadmap plan. The core programming language of the Stratis main chain project is C# the open source license is Other, and the code warehouse stratisproject/StratisBitcoinFullNode)has 690 Stars and 306 Forks,Achieved a very high degree of community acceptance.

Project Team and Community

The Stratis core main chain project has 64 code contributors, of which the top 10 contributors are as follows.

Contributor Number of total code submissions Number of code submissions in the past month
dangershony 424 3
bokobza 417 0
noescape00 357 0
codingupastorm 309 1
fassadlr 291 6
quantumagi 264 0
Aprogiena 219 0
rowandh 176 7
NicolasDorier 129 0
mikedennis 108 0

There are 20 contributors matching the core main chain project code programming language C# skills, among which the top 10 contributors are as follows.

Contributor Number of total code submissions Number of code submissions in the past month
thefazzer 46 0
zeptin 87 1
mikedennis 108 0
NicolasDorier 129 0
Aprogiena 219 0
quantumagi 264 0
fassadlr 291 6
codingupastorm 309 1
noescape00 357 0
dangershony 424 3

The top ten contributors to the core main chain project are as follows.

Contributor Number of total code submissions Number of code submissions in the past month
NicolasDorier 129 0
codingupastorm 309 1
maciejzaleski 8 4
nopara73 21 0
alexandre-spieser 1 0
detroitpro 4 0
dangershony 424 3
sondreb 6 0
sgryphon 4 0
Derrick- 11 0

There are many code contributors to Stratis core main chain project, including some developers with strong technical ability. Among them, excellent contributors account for 3.0303030303030303% of the total number of contributors, and the total number of code submissions is 438, accounting for11.63%。

In the past year, 3,767 code submissions were made and 33

There are 3968 issues in the whole community,128 issues in the open state and the overall solution rate of Bug Issues is 94.09%,From the perspective of the time when the community is open, the openness and interaction are normal.。

Project Relations and Technical Independence

StratisThe Blockchain items associated with Ethereum are as follows.

Blockchain Project Types of correlation Sources of correlation

Bitcoin
BTC

Litecoin
LTC

Namecoin
NMC

Dogecoin
DOGE

Vertcoin
VTC

DigiByte
DGB

MonaCoin
MONA

Groestlcoin
GRS

Viacoin
VIA

Emercoin
EMC

Qtum
QTUM

Particl
PART

Bitcoin Gold
BTG

Bitcoin Diamond
BCD

United Bitcoin
UBTC

Ravencoin
RVN

Bitcoin SV
BSV

Stratis is related to Bitcoin, Litecoin, Namecoin, Dogecoin, Vertcoin, DigiByte, MonaCoin, Groestlcoin, Viacoin, Emercoin, Qtum, Particl, Bitcoin Gold, Bitcoin Diamond, United Bitcoin, Ravencoin, Bitcoin SV,public Chain Project

Main Chain Core Code Analysis

The main chain source code of Stratis is compared and analyzed with the main chain source code of some other public chain projects. At present, there are no other public chain projects similar to the main chain source code ofStratis

Bitcoin(92)

Essential Information

   Bitcoin

organization Bitcoin Warehouse
Main chain repository bitcoin/bitcoin
Star
39138
Fork
23543
creation date 2010-12-19 23:16:43.000
Code Contributor 655
Code submission 21,529
Code submission in the past month 133
Technical assessment results:

Technical Analysis

Basic Technology

The Bitcoin public blockchain project provides white papers with detailed technical content and technical communities. The progress of the project basically conforms to its published roadmap plan. The core programming language of the Bitcoin main chain project is C++ the open source license is Other, and the code warehouse bitcoin/bitcoin)has 39138 Stars and 23543 Forks,Achieved a very high degree of community acceptance.

Project Team and Community

The Bitcoin core main chain project has 655 code contributors, of which the top 10 contributors are as follows.

Contributor Number of total code submissions Number of code submissions in the past month
laanwj 1625 1
sipa 1118 0
MarcoFalke 737 11
TheBlueMatt 637 0
theuni 585 0
jonasschnelli 488 1
gavinandresen 485 0
jnewbery 467 2
practicalswift 424 2
luke-jr 370 0

There are 20 contributors matching the core main chain project code programming language C++ skills, among which the top 10 contributors are as follows.

Contributor Number of total code submissions Number of code submissions in the past month
ken2812221 105 0
kallewoof 105 3
paveljanik 109 0
gmaxwell 163 0
morcos 209 0
promag 219 2
ryanofsky 238 0
gavinandresen 485 0
theuni 585 0
sipa 1118 0

The top ten contributors to the core main chain project are as follows.

Contributor Number of total code submissions Number of code submissions in the past month
sipa 1118 0
luke-jr 370 0
laanwj 1625 1
jamesob 62 0
gavinandresen 485 0
gmaxwell 163 0
petertodd 102 0
codler 10 0
jonasschnelli 488 1
TheBlueMatt 637 0

There are many code contributors to Bitcoin core main chain project, including some developers with strong technical ability. Among them, excellent contributors account for 34.34343434343434% of the total number of contributors, and the total number of code submissions is 8518, accounting for39.57%。

In the past year, 21,529 code submissions were made and 133

There are 16108 issues in the whole community,717 issues in the open state and the overall solution rate of Bug Issues is 95.98%,From the perspective of the time when the community is open, the openness and interaction are normal.。

Project Relations and Technical Independence

BitcoinThe Blockchain items associated with Ethereum are as follows.

Blockchain Project Types of correlation Sources of correlation

Litecoin
LTC

Bitcoin
BTC

Peercoin
PPC

Bitcoin
BTC

Dash
DASH

Bitcoin
BTC

Syscoin
SYS

Bitcoin
BTC

Particl
PART

Bitcoin
BTC

United Bitcoin
UBTC

Bitcoin
BTC

Namecoin
NMC

Primecoin
XPM

XRP
XRP

Dogecoin
DOGE

Vertcoin
VTC

DigiByte
DGB

ReddCoin
RDD

MonaCoin
MONA

Groestlcoin
GRS

WhiteCoin
XWC

MaidSafeCoin
MAID

Monero
XMR

Viacoin
VIA

Stellar
XLM

Emercoin
EMC