Technical Evaluation and Analysis on Global Public Blockchains Bluebook

(2020-03)

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Summary of Report Content

The public chain is currently the most interesting in the field of blockchain, and it is also the most widely used project type at this stage. However, there are certain technical and security risks in the public chain. Both developers, investors and enterprises must maintain a calm and cautious attitude towards the public chain. In the past, the evaluation of the technical content and research and development of public chain projects mostly came from the interpretation of the content of the white paper and the current product status of the project. The content of objective data analysis was seriously insufficient, resulting in a lack of serious data support for the analysis results. Under the "noisy background" of coins, the technical value of pure blockchain projects is particularly important. Beijing Tiande Technology Co., Ltd., in conjunction with the chain tower think tank company and related authoritative organizations, used its independently developed Taishan sandbox-blockchain technology evaluation database system, combined with a large amount of historical public chain rating experience, to complete this public chain project Technical evaluation and analysis report.

This period collects and organizes the public chain related information corresponding to digital tokens with high market value (top 200). The date of data collection is October 15, 2018. The calculation and evaluation of specific indicators on its white paper, open source community, source code, technical team, project products and other dimensions, the overall situation of the public chain project is as follows:

There are 157 digital tokens in open source community projects with open main chain or smart contract source code, of which 156 projects are GitHub community projects, and 1 project (Ardor) is Bitbucket community project. This evaluation mainly focuses on GitHub community projects. Evaluation work.

For the 156 public chain (smart contract) projects with core main chain technical data and evaluation conditions, using a combination of objective data analysis and subjective technology evaluation, the technology evaluation model framework is used to calculate the evaluation score of its technology, which is for developers. With the investors to provide their value reference, the top 20 rankings of the technical evaluation scores for this project are as follows.

Ranking Blockchain project Technical evaluation value
1 Ethereum Symbol
ETH
116.0
2 Cardano Symbol
ADA
97.0
3 Bitcoin Symbol
BTC
95.0
4 Komodo Symbol
KMD
90.0
5 IOTA Symbol
MIOTA
89.0
6 Stratis Symbol
STRAT
89.0
7 aelf Symbol
ELF
88.0
8 Storj Symbol
STORJ
86.0
9 Stellar Symbol
XLM
85.0
10 Monero Symbol
XMR
83.0
11 Steem Symbol
STEEM
82.0
12 Zcash Symbol
ZEC
82.0
13 NEO Symbol
NEO
82.0
14 RChain Symbol
RHOC
81.0
15 Waves Symbol
WAVES
80.0
16 Skycoin Symbol
SKY
79.0
17 Libra Symbol
Libra
79.0
18 Raiden Network Token Symbol
RDN
79.0
19 Ontology Symbol
ONT
78.0
20 Nebulas Symbol
NAS
78.0

Overall data analysis and technical evaluation results

The overall analysis of the technical data of 156 public chain (smart contract) projects with core main chain technical data and evaluation conditions is summarized as follows.

Statistical analysis of programming languages

The overall distribution of the core chain or smart contract core programming language

The main chain or smart contract core programming language is mainly concentrated in C ++, Go, JavaScript, Solidity, Python and Java occupying 78.916 % of the entire main chain or smart contract core programming language. Regardless of the special smart contract programming language Solidity, the current main chain project The programming languages ​​used are basically in line with the ranking trends of mainstream programming languages, indicating that these programming language characteristics are more in line with the development needs of blockchain projects. Among them, C ++ occupies 30.120 % and Go occupies 22.892 %. The combination of the two programming languages ​​has reached a utilization rate of 53.012 %, which has become the first choice of programming language for the public chain main chain project.

Top 20 main chain core programming languages ​​in technical evaluation

The programming language types selected by the top 20 main chain projects are very scattered, distributed across 9 programming languages, of which C ++ and Go occupy an absolute advantage ( 50.000 %), but from the perspective of the widespread application of other programming languages, it presents The diversity of technology choices indicates that some other programming languages ​​can also be well adapted to the development of public chain main chain projects.

Statistical analysis of open source licenses

Distribution of open source licenses for main chains or smart contracts

Intelligent backbone or license contract project focused on MIT, showed that most of the public chain backbone or intelligence projects selected for contract Loose license, more conducive to the spread and use of the source code, another type of license GPL ( AGPL- 3.0, LGPL-3.0, GPL-3.0, GPL-2.0 ) occupy a total of 31.373 %.

Top 20 main chain license distributions in technology evaluation

Many of the top 20 main chain projects in technology evaluation have chosen open source licenses that are more inclined to GPL type licenses, indicating that some public chain projects with high technology evaluation pay more attention to their cores in the process of using the open source community to conduct technology research and development. The protection of technical value and the fulfillment of the obligations of its open source code license are more conducive to its copyright protection and value maintenance.

Analysis of code submissions

Top 20 project rankings for main chain project code submissions in the past year

The development of the above public chain main chain projects has been progressing well in the past year, and the community has continued to be active. The total number of EOS, TRON, Rchain and 0x code submissions has reached more than 6000 times, indicating that these four public chains have been in the past year The project showed strong technical growth.

Top 20 project rankings for main chain project code submissions in the past month

Compared with the rankings of the past year, it was found that most public chain projects have continued to be active recently, but EOS, TRON, Waves, Ark, Komodo, Bitcoin, and Namecoin have recently declined in activity.

Code contributor analysis

Code contributors are the main or even the only source of power to support the technical development of a public chain project. Most of the core developers of the technical team in a public chain project will submit code for the project as code contributors to lead the technical development of the community. And the release of public chain products.

The total number of code contributors that track the main chain and smart contract projects with active trajectories is 3531 , of which the total number of main chain project code contributors for the top 20 of technology evaluation is 1252 , accounting for 35.46 % of the total number of tracked contributors . It is found that the core contributors of the main blockchain are concentrated in a few high-quality public chain projects. These open source communities have attracted a large number of code contributors through operations.

Top 10 code contributors for code submissions

A total of 82 contributors with more than 1,000 code submissions , of which the top ten contributors are shown in the figure above, of which laanwj is the core code contributor to Bitcoin's main chain project, as it also contributes code to multiple other main chain projects , submitted its code contribution amounted to 37865 times, other contributors such as sipa, gavinandresen, TheBlueMatt is active in more projects become the backbone of the core contributors.

Top 10 contributors for submissions in the past month

With the continuous increase in the number of public chain projects, in some early projects, the core contributors are often responsible for reviewing the code submitted by other contributors. This also makes many new project code contributors slowly increase in terms of code submissions.

Top 10 contributor statistics for technology capability assessment
Contributor Contributor name Contributor Home
vbuterin vbuterin https://github.com/vbuterin
muesli Christian Muehlhaeuser https://github.com/muesli
xtaci xtaci https://github.com/xtaci
fireice-uk fireice-uk https://github.com/fireice-uk
dtolnay David Tolnay https://github.com/dtolnay
jankotek Jan Kotek https://github.com/jankotek
bytemaster Daniel Larimer https://github.com/bytemaster
divan Ivan Daniluk https://github.com/divan
sipa Pieter Wuille https://github.com/sipa
laanwj Wladimir J. van der Laan https://github.com/laanwj

Analysis of the relationship between the project and contributors

The total number of contributors is 3531. Many of these contributors have contributed code to different main chain projects, and this phenomenon is already very common in the public chain development community. Qualitative and technical inheritance.

The statistics of the top 10 contributors across the project are as follows
The statistics of the top 20 projects with the most technical relations in the main chain are as follows

A total of 488 contributors have submitted code for more than one main chain project. The fork relationship and the intersection of contributors constitute the technical relationship between public chain projects. The personal technical capabilities of the technology contributors are hidden among the projects For delivery, there are as many as 70 related main chain items.

Code similarity analysis

Through the code similarity algorithm, the source code of some public chain main chain items were compared for similarity calculation. Among the top 10 items with higher similarity are shown in the following table.

Public chain main chain project Public chain main chain project
Namecoin namecoin / namecoin-core Bitcoin bitcoin / bitcoin
United Bitcoin UnitedBitcoin / UnitedBitcoin Litecoin litecoin-project / litecoin
Qtum qtumproject / qtum Litecoin litecoin-project / litecoin
Viacoin viacoin / viacoin Bitcoin Gold BTCGPU / BTCGPU
DigiByte digibyte / digibyte Bitcoin bitcoin / bitcoin
Vertcoin vertcoin-project / vertcoin-core Viacoin viacoin / viacoin
United Bitcoin UnitedBitcoin / UnitedBitcoin Vertcoin vertcoin-project / vertcoin-core
Litecoin litecoin-project / litecoin Vertcoin vertcoin-project / vertcoin-core
Syscoin syscoin / syscoin Dash dashpay / dash
Komodo jl777 / komodo ZClassic z-classic / zclassic

Six-dimensional technical evaluation score ranking

Basic Technology Evaluation Top20
Contributor Skills Matching Evaluation Top20
Contributor code submission performance evaluation Top20
Top 20 community activity assessments
Community Openness and Interaction Evaluation Top20
White papers and technical content evaluation Top20

Technical data analysis of major public chain projects

Ethereum (116)

Basic Information

   Ethereum

organization Ethereum warehouse
Main chain warehouse ethereum / go-ethereum
Star
25337
Fork
9191
Creation date 2013-12-26 21: 05: 46.000
Code contributor 454
Code submissions 11,531
Code submissions in the last month 46
Technical evaluation results

technical analysis

Basic technology

The Ethereum public chain project provides white papers and technical communities with detailed technical content. The progress of the project basically conforms to its published roadmap plan. The core programming language of the Ethereum main chain project is Go , the open source license is Other , and the code warehouse ( ethereum / Ethereum-Go ) to obtain 25337 Ge Stars and the presence of 9191 Ge Forks.

Project team and community

The Ethereum core main chain project has a total of 454 code contributors, of which the top 10 contributors for code submissions are as follows.

Contributor Total code submissions Number of code submissions in the past month
obscuren 2620 0
karalabe 1161 7
fjl 883 6
tgerring 523 0
zelig 324 0
holiman 223 11
CJentzsch 185 0
debris 180 0
maran 171 0
Gustav-Simonsson 159 0

20 contributors that exactly match the Go programming skills of the core main chain project code programming language , of which the top 10 contributors for the number of code submissions are as follows.

Contributor Total code submissions Number of code submissions in the past month
kurkomisi 17 2
egonelbre 19 0
nolash 27 1
gballet 72 3
janos 74 0
rjl493456442 86 5
zsfelfoldi 134 1
holiman 223 11
karalabe 1161 7
obscuren 2620 0

The core main chain project passed the technical capability assessment. The top ten contributors are as follows.

Contributor Total code submissions Number of code submissions in the past month
vbuterin twenty four 0
muesli 3 0
divan 4 0
egonelbre 19 0
gavofyork 40 0
karalabe 1161 7
Arachnid 36 0
cubedro 20 0
obscuren 2620 0
shazow 9 0

Among the code contributors of the Ethereum core main chain project, the outstanding contributors accounted for 26.415 % of the total number of contributors , a total of 6,218 code submissions, and 53.92 % of the entire project's code submissions .

The number of code submissions in the past year was 11,531 , and the number of code submissions in the past month was 46 .

The total number of Issues in the community is 9,652, and the number of Issues in the Open state is 285. The overall Bug Issues resolution rate is 0. From the time when the community is open, the openness and interaction are normal.

Project relationship and technical independence

The blockchain projects related to Ethereum are as follows.

Blockchain project Source of relevance Correlation type

Peercoin
PPC

Dogecoin
DOGE

Dash
DASH

Syscoin
SYS

Emercoin
EMC

Ubiq
UBQ

Factom
FCT

Augur
REP

Decred
DCR

Ethereum Classic
ETC

Zcash
ZEC

ZClassic
ZCL

Golem
GNT

Skycoin
SKY

Gnosis
GNO

Bancor
BNT

Status
SNT

EOS
EOS

Storj
STORJ

0x
ZRX

Raiden Network Token
RDN

CyberMiles
CMT

FuturoCoin
FTO

Ethereum and Peercoin , Dogecoin , Dash , Syscoin , Emercoin , Ubiq , Factom , Augur , Decred , Ethereum Classic , Zcash , ZClassic , Golem , Skycoin , Gnosis , Bancor , Status , EOS , Storj , 0x , Raiden Network Token , CyberMiles , FuturoCoin , The public chain project has a relationship

Core chain core code analysis

Of Ethereum backbone source code as part of other well backbone chain program source code similarity comparison and analysis, and Ethereum similar items source code for the presence of the main chain.

Blockchain project

Ubiq
UBQ

True Chain
TRUE

And timeline analysis similar code, the Ethereum backbone source code Ubiq , True Chain , part of the source code comparison similar

Cardano (97)

Basic Information

   Cardano

organization Cardano warehouse
Main chain warehouse input-output-hk / cardano-sl
Star
3306
Fork
574
Creation date 2016-10-14 21: 44: 38.000
Code contributor 98
Code submissions 16,996
Code submissions in the last month 13
Technical evaluation results

technical analysis

Basic technology

The Cardano public chain project provides white papers and technical communities with detailed technical content. The progress of the project basically conforms to its roadmap plan. The core programming language of the Cardano main chain project is Haskell , the open source license is Other , and the code warehouse ( input- output-hk / cardano-sl ) to obtain 3306 Stars and 574 Forks.

Project team and community

Cardano's core main chain project has a total of 98 code contributors, of which the top 10 contributors for code submissions are as follows.

Contributor Total code submissions Number of code submissions in the past month
gromakovsky 2200 0
volhovm 837 0
neongreen 833 0
sectore 797 0
Martoon-00 765 0
pva701 703 0
flyingleafe 530 0
avieth 484 0
georgeee 473 0
adinapoli-iohk 391 0

20 contributors that exactly match the Haskell skills of the core main chain project code programming language , of which the top 10 contributors for code submissions are as follows.

Contributor Total code submissions Number of code submissions in the past month
edsko 215 0
parsonsmatt 220 0
int-index 248 0
erikd 248 10
rockbmb 249 0
georgeee 473 0
avieth 484 0
Martoon-00 765 0
neongreen 833 0
volhovm 837 0

The core main chain project passed the technical capability assessment. The top ten contributors are as follows.

Contributor Total code submissions Number of code submissions in the past month
puffnfresh 1 0
chrisdone 2 0
snowleopard 1 0
Anviking twenty four 0
arybczak 4 0
jagajaga 7 0
sectore 797 0
seungwonpark 1 0
domenkozar 208 0
DominikGuzei 15 0

Among the code contributors of the Cardano core main chain project, the outstanding contributors accounted for 20.619 % of the total number of contributors , with a total of 1734 code submissions , accounting for 10.20 % of the entire project code submissions .

The number of code submissions in the past year was 16,996 , and the number of code submissions in the past month was 13 times.

There are 4269 Issues in the community and 187 Issues in the Open state . The overall Bug Issues resolution rate is 90.00% . From the time of the community's opening, the openness and interaction are normal.

Project relationship and technical independence

The blockchain projects related to Cardano are as follows.

Blockchain project Source of relevance Correlation type

Monero
XMR

Decred
DCR

TRON
TRX

Cardano has relationships with Monero , Decred , TRON , and public chain projects

Core chain core code analysis

Of Cardano backbone source code as part of other public backbone chain program source code similarity comparison and analysis, and no current Cardano similar to other public backbone chain program source code.

Bitcoin (95)

Basic Information

   Bitcoin

organization Bitcoin warehouse
Main chain warehouse bitcoin / bitcoin
Star
42130
Fork
25081
Creation date 2010-12-19 23: 16: 43.000
Code contributor 684
Code submissions 23,068
Code submissions in the last month 150
Technical evaluation results

technical analysis

Basic technology

The Bitcoin public chain project provides a white paper and technical community with detailed technical content. The progress of the project basically conforms to its roadmap plan. The core programming language of the Bitcoin main chain project is C ++ , the open source license is Other , and the code warehouse ( bitcoin / bitcoin ) received 42,130 Stars and 25,081 Forks.

Project team and community

The Bitcoin core main chain project has a total of 684 code contributors, of which the top 10 contributors for code submissions are as follows.

Contributor Total code submissions Number of code submissions in the past month
laanwj 1625 1
sipa 1118 0
MarcoFalke 737 11
TheBlueMatt 645 0
theuni 585 0
jnewbery 509 0
practicalswift 495 5
jonasschnelli 488 1
gavinandresen 485 0
fanquake 385 7

There are 20 contributors that exactly match the C ++ skills of the core main chain project code programming language , of which the top 10 contributors for code submissions are as follows.

Contributor Total code submissions Number of code submissions in the past month
kallewoof 105 3
paveljanik 109 0
gmaxwell 163 0
hebasto 188 5
morcos 209 0
promag 263 6
ryanofsky 276 0
gavinandresen 485 0
theuni 585 0
sipa 1118 0

The core main chain project passed the technical capability assessment. The top ten contributors are as follows.

Contributor Total code submissions Number of code submissions in the past month
sipa 1118 0
laanwj 1625 1
luke-jr 380 3
jamesob 86 0
gavinandresen 485 0
gmaxwell 163 0
petertodd 102 0
codler 10 0
jonasschnelli 488 1
TheBlueMatt 645 0

Among the code contributors of the Bitcoin Core Main Chain project, the outstanding contributors accounted for 33.333 % of the total number of contributors , and the total number of submitted code was 9057 , accounting for 39.26 % of the total submitted code amount of the project .

The number of code submissions in the past year was 23,068 , and the number of code submissions in the past month was 150 .

There are 17,809 Issues in the community and 765 Issues in the Open state . The overall Bug Issues resolution rate is 90.87% . From the time of the community's opening, the openness and interaction are normal.

Project relationship and technical independence

The following blockchain projects are related to Bitcoin .

Blockchain project Source of relevance Correlation type

Litecoin
LTC

Bitcoin
BTC

Peercoin
PPC

Bitcoin
BTC

Dash
DASH

Bitcoin
BTC

Syscoin
SYS

Bitcoin
BTC

Particl
PART

Bitcoin
BTC

United Bitcoin
UBTC

Bitcoin
BTC

Namecoin
NMC

Primecoin
XPM

XRP
XRP

Dogecoin
DOGE

Vertcoin
VTC

DigiByte
DGB

ReddCoin
RDD

MonaCoin
MONA

Groestlcoin
GRS

WhiteCoin
XWC

MaidSafeCoin
MAID

Monero
XMR

Viacoin
VIA